Science: Physics and Cosmology
The Bible says what types of knowledge are available for us to learn. Scientific knowledge, including physics and astronomy is available to be known. The Bible also explains how to obtain the knowledge. Here we follow the instructions in the Bible regarding how to extract knowledge of physics from God’s Law. This gives the fundamental symmetry principles of physics. The mathematical modeling of the active aspect of the relationship between God and His Son which optimally exemplifies God’s Law gives the configuration space on which the symmetry principles can be applied. The result, as far as I can tell, is uniquely what we see in nature, from the spectrum of Standard Model particles with their various species identifying quantum numbers, to the number of dimensions of space and time and even the apparently unique emergence of loop quantum gravity. Moreover the quantum dynamics of the theory is then simply that of loop quantum gravity. It should be pointed out here, that to my knowledge at least, there are significant open questions within the area of loop quantum gravity, especially concerning the notions of particle stability and time and how those notions interact with each other. These open questions within the study of loop quantum gravity are not resolved or addressed here and still requires ongoing research to understand.
Having established the laws of physics, the particles and quantum gravitational spacetime quantum states, we turn our attention to cosmology. The Bible says at least eleven times that God expanded out the Heavens. Thus the expansion of the Universe is a Biblical doctrine. We take the view that the expansion of the Universe in principle is the expansion, classically speaking, of the entire 1+3-dimensional spacetime manifold. Not just a three-dimensional spatial hypersurface. This view turns out to be automatically compatible with the standard model of cosmology or its fractal bubble timescape cosmology correction. The gauge freedom in the lapse function does not introduce new physics, but it does allow one, in a well-defined way, to compare different clocks. From the point of view of a matter observer present in the universe while the universe is expanding, it experienced several billion years of proper time, which we refer to as the non-zero-expansion rate clock time. If we factor out, via appropriate gauge choice in the lapse function, the affect on the clocks of the universe expanding at a nonzero rate, we get what we refer to as the zero-expansion-rate clock time age of the universe. The relation between the two clocks turns out to be exactly what was presented by Dr. Gerald Schroeder. The 14 billion years or so, of expanding proper time is equivalent to six days in terms of a zero-expansion-rate clock unaffected by the expansion of the universe. Unlike Dr. Schroeder, we posit that (because as far as we can tell), the expansion of the Universe is past tense, Biblically speaking. That is to say the Bible seems to teach that the God stretched out the Universe for the first six days and then stopped once creation to His judgment was complete. If this is correct, then right now the expansion rate is zero, so if one neglects the variations across the cosmological timescape due to the gravitational time dilation’s arising from the inhomogeneous fractal bubble void-filament structure of the universe, then our current every day clocks are what one might call zero-expansion-rate clocks, and hence according to our current clocks we use, the universe is 6 days plus 6000 years old which is about 6000 years old. If however we ask the question: How old is a bit of matter according to its own “wrist watch” that has been around since the beginning, the reading on the clock would be on the order of 14 billion years old (in the center of a large void however, for example, the registered age could be up to several billion years higher).
So then it turns out that the creation account in the Bible, if taken literally, as written, without any fancy linguistic and interpretational gymnastics, naturally agrees with the general fractal bubble correction to the standard model of cosmology. There is thus no reason for a literal Biblical creationist to disagree with the general standard model of cosmology. Likewise, there is no reason for a believer in standard cosmology to disbelieve the Bible on account of their cosmological understanding. The only possible caveat here is the apparently Biblical claim that the expansion of the Universe was ceased around 6000 years ago. Given that expansion evidence consists of red-shifted light from outside our local group of galaxies, and given that our local group is several million light years across, there has not been enough time for potential non-red-shifted light to reach us. Hence as far as I can tell, we cannot know empirically whether the universe is currently expanding or whether it has indeed “recently” stopped expanding. The Bible says it has, and science says nothing either way, for the next few million years.
One might object to this on account of the view that the expansion of the Universe has been concluded to be accelerating. This view is the natural result of the combination of the observational data as seen through the lens of the standard model of cosmology, which is built on the idealized Friedman-Robertson-Walker (FRW) spacetime metric which encodes the idea that on large scales there exists a legitimate way of averaging such that isotropy and homogeneity can be assumed to hold. However if one takes into account the fact that our actual universe is void-dominated by volume, and that an average position is actually in a void rather than in a “wall” of galaxy clusters like what we are located in, then we see that there is a mismatch between our local clocks and the averaged clock time that is represented by the FRW metric. It has been shown (see the Volume below for the many references) that there is no actual acceleration of the expansion of the Universe, but rather only an apparent acceleration effect due to the timescape nature of the void-wall fractal bubble structure of the universe.
The emergence of the theory of everything (modulo some remaining open questions such as the actual numerical values of the PMNS and CKM electroweak mixing matrices for example) from the Law of God, as exemplified in the relationship between God and His Son, together with the six day zero-expansion-rate clock time age of the Universe compatible with standard cosmology provides powerful evidence from both physics and cosmology for the Bible being dependable as being exactly what it claims to be: the written Word of God.
For those readers who would like to understand the technical details below but initially do not, we intend eventually to have quite a few background study articles covering relevant topics from introductory algebra to quantum groups to try and make the contents of the science part of this website allot more self-contained so the interested reader can privately self-study.
Evidence for the Bible
Volume One: Physics and Cosmology
File size: 0.97 MB
Dimensions: 8.50″ x 11.00″ inches